Pages The Impact of the Environment on Laboratory Animals. Care and Maintenance of Laboratory Animals. The Health of Laboratory Animals. The Female Rat. Anaesthesia in Laboratory Animals. Various Surgical Procedures in Rodents.
Transgenic Animals: Principles, Methods and Applications. Gene Expression Studies Using Microarrays. Brain Microdialysis. Maternal Behavior. Animal Tests for Anxiety. Rodent Models in Psychiatric Research. Male Reproductive Toxicology. For example, with howler monkeys both the males and females typically transfer from their natal group on reaching sexual maturity, resulting in groups in which neither the males nor females are typically related.
The transfer of females or males from their native group is likely an adaptation for avoiding inbreeding. Primatologist Jane Goodall , who studied in the Gombe Stream National Park , noted fission-fusion societies in chimpanzees. This social structure can also be observed in the hamadryas baboon ,  spider monkeys  and the bonobo. These social systems are affected by three main ecological factors: distribution of resources, group size , and predation. Cooperative behaviors include social grooming removing skin parasites and cleaning wounds , food sharing, and collective defense against predators or of a territory.
Aggressive behaviors often signal competition for food, sleeping sites or mates. Aggression is also used in establishing dominance hierarchies.
Chapter 020, Anatomy, Physiology, and Behavior (American College of Laboratory Animal Medicine)
Several species of primates are known to associate in the wild. Some of these associations have been extensively studied. In the Tai Forest of Africa several species coordinate anti-predator behavior. These include the Diana monkey , Campbell's mona monkey , lesser spot-nosed monkey , western red colobus , king colobus western black and white colobus , and sooty mangabey , which coordinate anti-predator alarm calls.
The red-tailed monkey associates with several species, including the western red colobus, blue monkey , Wolf's mona monkey , mantled guereza , black crested mangabey and Allen's swamp monkey. In South America, squirrel monkeys associate with capuchin monkeys. Primates have advanced cognitive abilities: some make tools and use them to acquire food and for social displays;   some can perform tasks requiring cooperation, influence and rank;  they are status conscious, manipulative and capable of deception;   they can recognise kin and conspecifics ;   and they can learn to use symbols and understand aspects of human language including some relational syntax and concepts of number and numerical sequence.
Lemurs , lorises , tarsiers , and New World monkeys rely on olfactory signals for many aspects of social and reproductive behavior. Like humans, chimpanzees can distinguish the faces of familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Such values are among the highest recorded for any terrestrial mammal, and a relatively extreme example of ultrasonic communication. For Philippine tarsiers, ultrasonic vocalizations might represent a private channel of communication that subverts detection by predators, prey and competitors, enhances energetic efficiency, or improves detection against low-frequency background noise.
For example, if an alarm call signals a python, the monkeys climb into the trees, whereas the eagle alarm causes monkeys to seek a hiding place on the ground. Primates seem to possess a sixth personality trait, dominance. Male gorillas display aggression during a majority of their interactions while chimpanzees reconcile after their aggressive encounters. Killing males in differing groups in order to expand territory is an act of violence only seen in chimps and humans.
Bonobos tend to live in cohesive communities with lower aggressive incidents. Both humans and nonhuman primates, such as chimpanzees, exhibit proactive aggression, a type of preplanned aggression with a reward.
This aggression is expressed between neighboring groups. Proactive aggression ultimately increases the fitness of the community as a whole as the size of the community increases. Unlike proactive aggression, reactive aggression is low in humans but high in chimpanzees. Reactive aggression is a result of anger in order to cease a stressful stimulus. Low reactive aggression in humans can be attributed to tolerance and cooperation. Ranking in nonhuman primates stems from the most aggressive male, while nomadic hunter-gatherers are respected for their prestige and ability to form alliances and negotiations.
Hunter-gatherers who attempted to utilize aggression were viewed as a threat and removed from the group. The removal of community threats can be likened to modern capital punishment, more specifically the death penalty. Primates have slower rates of development than other mammals. Infanticide is common in polygynous species such as gray langurs and gorillas.
Adult males may kill dependent offspring that are not theirs so the female will return to estrus and thus they can sire offspring of their own. Social monogamy in some species may have evolved to combat this behavior. Primates have a longer juvenile period between weaning and sexual maturity than other mammals of similar size.
Other primates follow a strategy of "riding", i. Adults may construct or use nesting sites, sometimes accompanied by juveniles, for the purpose of resting, a behavior which has developed secondarily in the great apes.
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Primates exploit a variety of food sources. It has been said that many characteristics of modern primates, including humans, derive from an early ancestor's practice of taking most of its food from the tropical canopy. Many primates have anatomical specializations that enable them to exploit particular foods, such as fruit, leaves, gum or insects. It taps on trees to find insect larvae, then gnaws holes in the wood and inserts its elongated middle finger to pull the larvae out.
chapter anatomy physiology and behavior american college of laboratory animal medicine Manual
For example, the grey-cheeked mangabey has thick enamel on its teeth, enabling it to open hard fruits and seeds that other monkeys cannot. Tarsiers are the only extant obligate carnivorous primates, exclusively eating insects, crustaceans, small vertebrates and snakes including venomous species. The common chimpanzee eats an omnivorous frugivorous diet.
It prefers fruit above all other food items and even seeks out and eats them when they are not abundant. It also eats leaves and leaf buds, seeds, blossoms, stems, pith, bark and resin. Common chimpanzees sharpen sticks to use as weapons when hunting mammals. This is considered the first evidence of systematic use of weapons in a species other than humans. Researchers documented 22 occasions where wild chimpanzees fashioned sticks into "spears" to hunt lesser bush babies Galago senegalensis. In each case, a chimpanzee modified a branch by breaking off one or both ends and, frequently using its teeth, sharpened the stick.
The chimpanzees then jabbed their spears into hollows in tree trunks where bush babies slept. There was a single case in which a chimpanzee successfully extracted a bush baby with the tool. The bonobo is an omnivorous frugivore — the majority of its diet is fruit, but it supplements this with leaves, meat from small vertebrates , such as anomalures , flying squirrels and duikers ,  and invertebrates.
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Predators of primates include various species of carnivorans , birds of prey , reptiles , and other primates. Even gorillas have been recorded as prey. Predators of primates have diverse hunting strategies and as such, primates have evolved several different antipredator adaptations including crypsis , alarm calls and mobbing. Several species have separate alarm calls for different predators such as air-borne or ground-dwelling predators.