This includes qualitative analysis of the interaction between customers and the prototype service in a dedicated suite. The results of these design evaluation sessions are promptly fed back into the design process, helping to ensure usability, engagement and satisfaction for customers on service release. African newsletter on occupational health and safety, , 15 1 [ download pdf from source ].
Contemporary Ergonomics [ view in google books ]. Evaluation and control of warm working conditions, [ download pdf from source ]. A manually operated machine for chipping cassava was evaluated. Six farmers took part in the study, with physiological, postural, and subjective measurements being taken.
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Using the machine resulted in drudgery and postural discomfort. Following an iterative design process and using appropriate anthropometric measurements, an improved, adjustable prototype was developed. This was tested with the six farmers and six novice users.
It was found to reduce discomfort and physiological strain, allowed a faster work-rate with novice users and was preferred by all users. The study demonstrated how ergonomics can play an important role in reducing drudgery and improving user satisfaction in technology development and transfer in developing countries. Where a danger to health from heat stress is identified, standards allow decisions for implementing measures to reduce the heat stress to be made.
Whilst the scope of the standards is international, little consideration has been made as to how valid and usable they are in industrially developing countries.
Who belongs to ergonomics? An examination of the human factors community
Whilst ISO was found to be valid if slightly over protective and usable, ISO was over protective and underestimated sweat and evaporation rates in its predictions. The discrepancies between predicted and observed results were attributed primarily to the calculations related to clothing in the standard.
Furthermore, ISO was found to be unusable without a computer; in regions where access to such technology may be limited, a simpler method of presentation is required. A survey of male subsistence farmers in the Brong Ahafo region of Ghana was undertaken to identify the predominant causes of ill-health in this sector of the population.
A greater number of working days were lost from gunshot wounds 60 , broken bones 38 and snakebites 29 , but these were less prevalent. The use of handtools was heavily implicated in many of the activities associated with the onset of ill-health. An Internet survey of behaviour, attitudes and opinions of regular club-goers found that night-clubs were considered to be hot or very hot places where many respondents experienced heat related illnesses.
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Four male and four female subjects danced for one hour. Subjects generally felt hot and sticky, preferring to be cooler. The predicted effects of continuous dancing for four hours gave a core body temperature increase to Using ISO appropriate work-rest schedules for dancing and water requirements were suggested. Human Factors, 53 3 , pp. Applied Ergonomics, 41 4 , pp. Ergonomics, 53 6 , pp. Human Factors, 51 5 , pp.
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Horner, A. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 55 11 , pp.
ISBN Applied Ergonomics, 37 6 , pp. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 54 3 , pp.
Kurniawan, S. International J. Mass Customisation, 1, pp. Ujike, H. IWA E. Ng, E. Six Sigma and Competitive Advantage, 1, pp. Ji, J. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 3 , pp.