The content will be inspirational to students, potential or existing entrepreneurs, and also useful for a wider range of stakeholders, for example policy makers and those engaged in regional economic development. Kariv and other contributing authors are to be congratulated on this timely and outstanding addition to our emerging knowledge about female entrepreneurship.
Menzies, Brock University, Canada. Kickul Lisa K. Her research interests include entrepreneurship, gender and cross-national research.
References / Papers
Log In New account. Got to Shopping Cart. You screen resolution is to small to fit the content correctly. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, Vol. Gird, A. South African Journal of Psychology, Vol. Granovetter, M. Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. Grilo, I.
Female Entrepreneurship and the New Venture Creation: An International Overview
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Policy Research Working Paper Knight, F. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. Krueger, N. Lang, R. Voluntas, Vol.
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Langowitz, N. Lee, S. Journal of Business Venturing. Li, Y. Liao, J.
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DOI: Powell, W. In: The Sage handbook of organizational institutionalism, eds. Greenwood — C. Oliver — K. Sahlin — R. Suddaby, —, London. Puffer, S. Rafiqui, P. Journal of Economic Geography, Vol. Scott, W. Journal of Change Management, Vol.
Shane, S. Shapero, A.
In: The environment for entrepreneurship, ed. Going beyond a gendered analysis to acknowledge the importance of context, place and social positionality emphasises the centrality of intersectionality for entrepreneurial resource accrual and strategising Essers et al. Intersectional theorists argue that using gender alone as a conceptual framework for subjectivity homogenises and essentialises both women and men as categories; it becomes a blunt instrument which loses effect and blurs diverse markers of social identity.
As a construct, intersectionality can be difficult to operationalise as it describes how individuals are subject to a confluence of social forces. Social positionality holds an array of implications for the accrual of a range of socio-economic resources; given resource accrual and utilisation are central to entrepreneurial activity and new venture creation, this has obvious consequences for how opportunities are recognised and enacted. Accordingly, how intersectional positionality, drawing on gender as well as other social ascriptions, shapes entrepreneurial propensity and potential offers much scope for further interrogation.
Thus, the privileges afforded to white, heterosexual, middle-class men become visible through this analysis, rather than being deemed normative and, as such, invisible as is presently the case Marlow, et al. What our suggestions for the advancement of the entrepreneurial conversation hold in common is the push to ground theory on the phenomenon of entrepreneurship more clearly in the complex landscape of the social world. Streams of literature are emerging in each of these areas, as well as explicit calls for further work on intersectionality, positionality, masculinities, households and context.
However, a key aspect of the contemporary social world that has yet to be fully engaged, especially when considering partners and household resource flows, is the relevance of sexual orientation and gender identity and the embedding of academic analyses within the cis-normative and heteronormative binary.
There is an assumption that entrepreneurial actors are cis-identified gender matches that assigned at birth heterosexuals who conform to a stereotypical gender binary. This is somewhat puzzling given the prevalence and acceptance of same-sex preferences in many nations, the potential for contradictory or non-normative gender performances Smith, and the growing visibility of transgender people Gira Grant, However, despite recent social and institutional shifts, homophobic and transphobic discrimination persists in the socio-economic strata Badgett et al.
This reflects arguments by Linstead and Pullen who argue for gender as a multiplicity with no fixed point of articulation but as an ongoing performance which draws on diverse and nuanced articulations. As such, queer, a historically derogatory word that has now been reclaimed, is another umbrella term, similar to LGBTQIA, but in general more explicitly politicised due to its history Halperin, It has been demonstrated that individuals seek to create their own employment as a response to employment related socio-economic discrimination, arising from social ascriptions related to race, ethnicity or sex Clark and Drinkwater, ; ; Galloway, While, given the ubiquity of discrimination beyond the constraints of employment, the efficacy of such avoidance strategies as a solution to organisational prejudices is limited, the extent to which LGBTQIA people of various demographic backgrounds and social circumstances might engage in entrepreneurial activities to counter employment discrimination remains under-explored.
Female Entrepreneurship and the New Venture Creation: An International Overview | Semantic Scholar
In addition to discriminatory influences in employment, adopting contradictory gender performances could have negative implications for resource accumulation and stakeholder support. To counter such homophobic influences, these entrepreneurial actors may retreat to so-called pink ghettos Smith, and create specific market niches. As the purpose of this article is to draw on gender theory to consider various possibilities for future research exploration, these are largely speculative reflections; so, whilst there is some evidence from small-scale studies suggesting discrimination flight from employment to self-employment by gay men, this is by no means clear-cut Galloway, While the field of gay and lesbian entrepreneurship has attracted some attention, class stratification, male domination and white supremacy has still guided investigations, making middle-class white gay men the normative subject of investigations into queer populations Halperin, Meanwhile, we have very little evidence regarding lesbian, bisexual, transgender and gender non-conforming people and whether stereotype contradiction and related discrimination influences entrepreneurial propensity.
Accordingly, we know the least about queer entrepreneurs who are not white gay cis men or lesbian cis women — for example, the entrepreneurial activities of trans women of colour, who are often disproportionately active in the beauty industries, entertainment and sex work Mock, This is likely due to the heightened marginality of their identities although collectively, they make up a significant portion of queer populations , general lack of mainstream social acceptance and the vulnerability this precludes Gira Grant, This means that their businesses may be particularly economically constrained and relatively hidden, situated in grey economies and outside markets where the bulk of research is conducted.
Again, we raise issues of potential interest but can only supply primarily anecdotal, not empirical evidence as we know so little about these issues. From this very short overview, we have suggested several gendered themes for future exploration and analysis; these not only offer research opportunities but also indicate the complexity and multiplicity of gender as a social structure, bodily ascription and everyday enactment. At present, the gendering of entrepreneurship focuses almost exclusively on assumed heterosexual women as gendered subjects; this fails to capture the diversity of gender as a construct and so informs a limited and partial ontological foundation for the contemporary understanding of its influence on entrepreneurial activity.
The purpose of this critique is to advance knowledge of how gendered ascriptions influence entrepreneurial propensity and activity. As a form of social activity, entrepreneurship is fundamentally gendered — it is acknowledged that for human actors, gendered ascriptions are universal applications which enable us to make sense of each other and so engage in meaningful communications and exchange Butler, ; Fine, ; Kelan, Thus, as an outcome of human interaction, entrepreneurship has always been a gendered activity; however, until the s, the gender bias within this process was largely unnoticed — the masculinity imbuing the discourse reflected the normative privilege and visibility afforded to men per se Ahl and Marlow, Critical evaluations of this bias emerging since the s have informed the gendering of entrepreneurship Ahl, which positions women as gendered subjects within this discourse Henry et al.
Such critiques have revealed the manner in which women are disadvantaged by gendered ascriptions both within theoretical analyses of entrepreneurial activity and practical applications of such McAdam, The privileges afforded to masculinity create a hierarchy which, in turn, positions women in deficit. As such, the entrepreneurial activities they perform are more likely to be deemed less effective and of lower value merely because they are undertaken by women Ahl and Marlow, despite evidence of marginal differences in the entrepreneurial effectiveness of men and women business owners Robb and Watson, Gendering entrepreneurship to reveal the embedded masculine bias has been absolutely essential to challenge normative ontological assumptions, to advance theoretical development and reveal the conceptual detriment under which women labour as entrepreneurial actors.