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Under these conditions Italian exporters would certainly not be in a position to compete more effectively in world markets. Moreover, it should also be remembered that in southern Italy criminal organisations remain strong: if inflation is growing and the state becomes weak, the main beneficiaries may end up being Italian Mafias. Clearly, the euro has more than one problem, but these issues have been presented incorrectly in the Italian debate.

Monetary policy has become integrated, but local governments still compete over fiscal policy.

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The result is that countries across the Eurozone possess different kinds of policies, from social security to commercial laws. The fact that the European market is not complete is what disadvantages Italian firms. None of these problems will be solved by exiting the euro and in many ways leaving the single currency could achieve the opposite result.

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  • If Italian politicians again have the capacity to determine both fiscal and monetary policy why should we expect a different situation from that which occurred in the s, where policies were regularly set with the aim of securing votes rather than solving existing problems? Contrary to public opinion, Italy is not respecting important European legislation in the areas of competition and anti-corruption, among others. The reasons for this are clear: the Italian system is not competitive internally, with banks and firms closely connected to each other, and politics having to take into account the opinion of the strongest voting blocks.

    Contrary to the way it was presented, the legislation thereby sought to provide substantial financial support to these banks directly from the central bank. Normally, if a government helps banks it is required to implement a change of governance strategy at the banks being granted support as happened, for instance, in the United States , but in this case this did not happen.

    Italian politicians and bureaucracy evidently do not like to lose power with respect to the European institutions. To avoid problems, Italian politicians accept some European Commission indications related to austerity measures and cuts of public expenditure. At the same time, these policies increase unemployment and thereby raise the amount of public debt. Considering the structural problems within the Italian economy, the fall in GDP experienced since the start of the crisis has virtually no limits as firms that close will not be replaced by others. Moreover, some of the measures within the fiscal compact and balanced budget requirements have fuelled Euroscepticism.

    It is still possible to halt this trajectory with the right reforms. First, structural funds should be managed by international actors and not by an Italian bureaucracy which is largely unfit for purpose. Second, the European institutions should take a tougher line on the application of EU legislation in Italy, particularly with respect to anti-corruption laws, public agencies, private firms that work for the public sector, and the timing of judgements.

    Finally, the European Commission should recognise that the economic conditions in Italy are close to a disaster and remove temporarily some hurdles in terms of public investment to sustain aggregate demand. This can be done in two ways: by helping firms to change production processes and by considering universal forms of protection for people that lose their jobs such as a basic income. It may also be necessary to adapt the strategy of the European Central Bank and move resources directly to these projects without the intermediation of Italian banks.

    Ultimately, the issues surrounding Italian public opinion and the European Union are generated by the contrast between Italian politicians and the European institutions. The Italian system is blocked by the inability of policy-makers to arrive at the correct solutions because they are scared of disrupting the political consensus. This term is also often idealized by foreigners, a vision of quaint, pastoral Italianness, like an image of a nonna making fresh pasta on a wooden table in her olive garden.

    Anyone with a talent for happiness can do this. Like so many terms,the cultural significance of arrangiarsi has changed as society has shifted around it, ping-ponging from one meaning to the next and oscillating between virtue and vice. Its popularity as a cultural marker dates to the years after the unification of Italy, when heavy taxes and land reform resulted in tremendous poverty and suffering throughout the country, particularly in the south, and Italians had to resort to ingenious strategies to make do.

    During this time, however, many Italians resorted to illegal activities and crime of both the organized and petty varieties. Here, they associated it with cleverness and opportunism, prizing both qualities as tools Italians simply used to get by. We betrayed the Germans and were treated as enemies by the Americans. We were stuck in the middle, taking bullets from both armies, trying to escape from two enemies without ever finding a true ally in anyone.

    We see this, once again, in the world of soccer. Xenophobia and racism in Italy are not new, but there has been a resurgence in recent years as an influx of migrants and an economic recession have fueled the rise of populist leaders. In a country where thirty-five percent of young adults are unemployed, many Italians have turned inward, focusing on defending Italy from anyone deemed not really Italian, be it based on their immigration status or the color of their skin.

    The populist Five Star Movement and far-right Lega, which currently lead Italy in a coalition government and are Euro-skeptic the former and anti-immigration the latter , came to power largely as a result of these sentiments, and since the elections in July, the country has seen an explosion of racially-motivated attacks. They had just visited Little Italy and, pleasantly surprised by the vitality of the Italian community here, cited it as an example of Italian arrangiarsi: every red-white-and-green storefront selling cannoli reminded them of the generations of Italian immigrants who struggled to make do in a foreign, strange city, escaping destitution in the south of Italy only to find prejudice and poverty in America.

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